In adolescence, ADHD is associated with a set of distinct and measurable challenges — executive dysfunction, increased risk for substance misuse and automobile accidents, stimulant medication diversion, emotional dysregulation, high-risk behaviors, and more. Robust, long-term studies confirm that, if unaddressed, these teenage challenges can impact the quality of life and general functioning well into adulthood.
For best outcomes, clinicians must help patients and families understand how ADHD impacts the adolescent and young adult brain specifically, and how early care and interventions can have positive effects. If the conversations and interventions begin early, and a family’s vigilance remains high, teens with ADHD will grow and launch into remarkable young adults.
ADHD in Adolescents: Developmental Overview
ADHD Persists into Adulthood for Many.
While symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD or ADD) tend to decline and shift with time, it is the rule – not the exception – that the majority of teens with ADHD (75 percent) continue to experience ADHD in adulthood. This fundamental aspect of the condition underscores the importance of creating support and using strategies in earlier years that are built to last particularly through the critical transition from adolescence into young adulthood.
ADHD Adolescent Years and Brain Development
Significant brain growth, especially in the frontal lobe – the region involved in executive function skills like problem-solving, conflict resolution, planning, and impulse control – occurs during the teenage years and continues until about age 25. With ADHD, however, brain development in this region is slightly delayed, meaning these skills may develop slowly.
Delayed frontal lobe development also makes regulating the limbic system – the circuitry associated with emotion, anxiety, reward, and risky behavior – more difficult. This differential brain development may explain some observable dysregulation and instability in adolescents with ADHD, and it builds a case for why families still need to remain involved and vigilant through the teen’s development in this period.
ADHD & Increased Academic Demands
Teens with ADHD progressing through high school must navigate and tackle increasingly difficult workloads. There are more exams, more homework, a grueling and increasingly competitive college or trades application process, and more to keep track of generally compared to prior school years. Missed assignments and truancy, for example, may have serious consequences.
Extracurricular activities also come with increased demands, especially in college or the trades. In sports, for example, playbooks are becoming thicker and more complex. Increased competition makes for a higher level of play, and self-discipline is required to keep up with practice, training, diet, and other aspects of the game while also maintaining grades high enough to qualify for play.
The risk of dropping out of high school is higher in those with ADHD compared to peers without ADHD, which has a strong influence over future income levels, hire-ability, and other realms.
ADHD & Social Impairment
Many individuals with ADHD struggle with social skills, and the transition to adulthood can highlight these challenges. Studies demonstrate that teens and young adults with ADHD tend to:
- Be less socially competent than their peers
- Be involved in fewer social activities
- Have fewer friends
- Have delinquent friends
- Be socially isolated
Adolescents with ADHD may also be unreliable sources for assessing their social functioning, giving themselves overly optimistic appraisals of their skills. To improve peer relationships, teens can join in-person or online groups and activities that align with their interests and hobbies.
ADHD Comorbid Conditions
The risk for other comorbid conditions with ADHD is high, especially during the transition from adolescence into young adulthood. Depression and anxiety problems are perhaps the most common and pressing comorbid conditions among teens with ADHD. Treatment of young people with ADHD includes a focus not only on the ADHD but also on the comorbid conditions.
Research shows that treatment has a protective effect against the development of multiple comorbid disorders in individuals with ADHD. But apart from stimulant misuse, teens with ADHD may face barriers to medication adherence for a number of reasons, including stigma, cost, side effects, and insurance problems, plus a simple lack of consistency.
ADHD & Driving
The frequency of automobile accidents and violations is greater among teens with ADHD compared to their neurotypical peers. According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, teens with ADHD are:
- Two to four times more likely to be in an automobile accident
- Four times more likely to be at fault for accidents
- Up to six times more likely to get speeding tickets
- Six to eight times more likely to have suspended licenses
All young people with ADHD should be aware of the increased risks of accidents and minimize distractions such as cell phones during driving. It is critical to note that the higher rates of motor vehicle accidents improve dramatically when young people with ADHD are receiving effective ADHD treatment.
Treatments for ADHD in Adolescents
An effective treatment plan for youth with ADHD centers on ongoing education about possible challenges and interventions, and also has the following components:
- Awareness of the individual’s unique strengths and weaknesses
- Supports and interventions for areas of most need
- Collaborative monitoring by parents and teens of ADHD symptoms, activities, and habits
If heading to college and the trades, teens and young adults with ADHD must accept that they will need to seek out help. Many accommodations available in the educational setting can be helpful, such as extended time for tests and additional help from writing and math tutoring centers.
The importance of tapping into one’s self-help skills is put to the test in college and early-occupational training. It is best for caregivers to help instill healthy habits — like adequate sleep and nutrition, exercise, and stress management — in early adolescence. They should check in with the young adult regularly by asking questions about how they’re covering these habits. Teens will also need to know how to independently create structure, and if receiving certain medications, how to study during medication coverage periods. Also consider reducing the academic load per semester, especially when transitioning to the tough first semester.
Outside the college route, families can consider vocational assessment and career counseling to explore options for their teens. Many occupational fields offer training with some type of accommodations.
Therapy for ADHD
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for ADHD is an effective treatment that improves ADHD symptoms and self-management overall, and new research shows that it is specifically effective for young people with ADHD. In this therapy, patients learn to compensate for residual symptoms and are taught to see their patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior and their consequences. Group and individual modes are available, and both settings are helpful.
ADHD & Medication
Medicines should not be promoted as cure-alls, but they are helpful for ADHD, . Stimulants are first-line treatments, followed by non-stimulants, antidepressants, and other empirically-based medications. The patient and clinician should work with the goal of reducing target symptoms by about 50 percent.
To ensure medical adherence, clinicians and/or parents can suggest a reminder system at home, or offer more information on engagement programs (designed to boost independence and self-advocacy, which may help reduce negative feelings toward medication)
The adolescent to young adult transitional years mark an important period for independence and development. ADHD in not a cosmetic or trivial disorder; it brings with it struggles, suffering, and impairment. Now, can you harness ADHD and use it to your benefit? Absolutely, yes. Knowing yourself existentially will help you do that. With the right care and special attention, teens with ADHD will grow and flourish as they transition to adulthood.
Neurofeedback Therapy at NHA
Here at Neurohealth Associates, we specialize in Neurofeedback therapy. Neurofeedback may be helpful for training your mind, especially if you are unsure about putting yourself or your child on medication. This easy, noninvasive therapy can painlessly improve your mental health condition and outlook on life. Schedule a consultation with NeuroHealth Associates today and find out how we can help you.